Cladding is a process where a material is bonded onto a structural member that supports applied stresses, in order to cost-effectively obtain the material properties of the cladding material on a comparatively cheap substrate to provide:
- Corrosion Resistance
- Wear Resistance
Typical Cladding Methods include:
- MIG weld cladding
- Laser cladding
- TIG cladding
- SAW Cladding
Arc- Welding is often the most appropriate cladding method for applications requiring complex geometry over large surface areas E.g. tube sheets for steam generators and heat exchangers, pipelining.
Current cladding methods, though versatile, are slow and expensive, with variable quality
- Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) – slow, precise
- Strip with Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) – faster, for simpler geometries
- Metal Inner Gas Welding (MIGW) – Low speeds, allows complex geometries
- Laser Welding – Low speeds, expensive and time-consuming
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)
Process – Arc forms between a continuously fed wire and the work, using a gun that provides a shielding gas to protect the arc and the solidifying weld metal.
- Deposits beads of cladding material, side-by-side and in layers until the required property is achieved at the surface.
- Slow (resulting in high production cost),
- Variable Quality results
High-Speed Robotic Cladding
High-Speed Robotic Cladding (HSRC) is an innovative technique for depositing a cladding metal onto a structural substrate.
Cladding deposit rates doubled, with a significant increase in process consistency.
*Initial developments used Inconel cladding on a carbon steel substrate.
Diffusion – Chemical Analysis
Chemical analysis performed according to ASTM E1097-07 (Modified) and E1479-99(2005)
Specimen examination reveals complete fusion at the interface and between passes. No apparent discontinuities such as undercut, cracking, inclusions or porosity were observed.